“In God We Trust” and Pledge of Allegiance Found Constitutional by Ninth Circuit

San Francisco, CA – Today the Ninth Circuit issued two opinions regarding the national motto and the pledge of allegiance. The Court found that neither the motto nor the pledge violate the First Amendment’s Establishment Clause. Dr. Michael Newdow filed the two cases which have garnered national attention.

“We are delighted by the outcome and believe that the constitutionality of both the motto and the pledge will continue to be upheld under further review,” said Brad Dacus, president of the Pacific Justice Institute. The Pacific Justice Institute intervened as a defendant organization and fully participated in the litigation of the national motto. Kevin Snider, PJI’s chief counsel, argued the case along with Lowell Sturgill of the U.S. Department of Justice, before the appellate court. PJI also filed a friend of the court brief in support of the pledge. PJI affiliate attorney Pete Lepiscopo of San Diego authored the brief.